As regards the use of CCTV to monitor and record employees’ activities at workplaces, more specific guidance can be found in Privacy Guidelines: Monitoring 1 2 and Personal Data Privacy at Work3 issued by the Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data, Hong Kong. The following steps should be taken: ††Decide 4 whether there is a pressing need to use ††Any facial recognition system used in conjunction with CCTV must be supported by strong justification as the use of CCTV to enable automatic identification and tracking of individuals captured on CCTV footage is not normally expected by the public; ††Consult, where practicable, people who may be affected by the CCTV on what their concerns are, what steps may be taken to address these concerns and minimise the privacy intrusion; ††Covert CCTV surveillance should not be used without strong / overriding justification, and only as the last resort; and ††Clearly determine the scope or extent of monitoring. See Guidance on CCTV Surveillance and Use of Drones 2 March 2017 Positioning of CCTV Cameras and Notices CCTV cameras should be positioned in a way that will not unnecessarily intrude into the privacy of individuals. The notices should contain details of the data user operating the CCTV system, the specific purpose of surveillance and the person to whom matters relating to personal data privacy issues can be raised. Proper Handling of the Recorded Images DPP2(1) and DPP2(2) impose a duty on data users to ensure data accuracy and that there is no excessive retention of personal data.
If third party contractors are engaged in the provision and / or maintenance of CCTV, and have access to the CCTV images containing personal data, DPP2(3) requires that data users must adopt contractual or other means to ensure that personal data accessible by contractors is not kept longer than necessary. Data users may refer to the Information Leaflet Outsourcing the Processing of Personal Data to Data Processor5 published by the Commissioner for details. If a data user engages contractors that would have access to the recorded images, DPP4(2) requires that the data user must adopt contractual or other means to ensure that there is no diminution in protection for the personal data accessible by contractors6. Transfer of CCTV Records to Third Parties On the use of personal data, DPP3 stipulates that personal data shall only be used for the purposes for which it was collected or a directly related purpose. See See footnote 5 Guidance on CCTV Surveillance and Use of Drones 3 March 2017 When a data user is asked to provide copies of CCTV records to a law enforcement agency for criminal investigation purpose, the exemption provided under section 58(2) of the Ordinance7 may apply.
If such reviews indicate that the use of the CCTV is no longer relevant or necessary, or if less privacy-intrusive alternatives can be used to achieve the same purpose, the data user should cease using the CCTV. Drones There is no universally accepted definition for drones but typically they cover aircrafts that are either controlled autonomously by computers or by remote pilots. Drones can be far more privacy-intrusive than CCTV in view of their unique attributes: ††Being small, portable, mobile and cheap, they can track an individual’s activities more persistently over time and in places that are not expected while covering a wider area; A data user may rely on the exemption under section 58(2) of the Ordinance to exempt from the provisions of DPP3 the use of personal data for the prevention or detection of crime.
Special cameras for some of these purposes include line-scan cameras and thermographic cameras which allow operators to measure the temperature of the processes. With the addition of fixed cameras for the active traffic management system, the number of cameras on the Highways Agency’s CCTV network is likely to increase significantly over the next few years. The cameras send the feed to a central control center where a producer selects feeds to send to the television monitors that fans can view. In 2018, China was reported to have a huge surveillance network of over 170 million CCTV cameras with 400 million new cameras expected be installed in the next three years, many of which use facial recognition technology. New York City’s Domain Awareness System has 6,000 video surveillance cameras linked together, there are over 4,000 cameras on the subway system, and two-thirds of large apartment and commercial buildings use video surveillance cameras.
In the Washington D.C.-area, there are more than 30,000 surveillance cameras in schools, and the Metro has nearly 6,000 cameras in use across the system. According to 2011 Freedom of Information Act requests, the total number of local government operated CCTV cameras was around 52,000 over the entirety of the UK. Although specific legalities of running a home CCTV system in the UK are rather vague there are published rules and regulations that although are mostly common sense, do include some laws that most people may not be aware of, including registering with ICO as a data controller if any CCTV camera catch images of any of the public on, or outside of your property. Based on a small sample in Putney High Street, McCahill and Norris extrapolated the number of surveillance cameras in Greater London to be around 500,000 and the total number of cameras in the UK to be around 4,200,000. In South Africa due to the high crime rate CCTV surveillance is widely prevalent but the country has been slow to implement the latest technology e.g.
the first IP camera was released in 1996 by Axis Communications but IP cameras didn’t arrive in South Africa till 2008. Proponents of CCTV cameras argue that cameras are effective at deterring and solving crime, and that appropriate regulation and legal restrictions on surveillance of public spaces can provide sufficient protections so that an individual’s right to privacy can reasonably be weighed against the benefits of surveillance. 43% favored regulation in the form of clear routines for managing, storing and distributing image material generated from surveillance cameras, 39% favored regulation in the form of clear signage informing that camera surveillance in public spaces is present, 2% favored regulation in the form of having permits restricting the use of surveillance cameras during certain times of day/week, 10% favored regulation in the form of having restrictive policies for issuing permits for surveillance cameras in public spaces. Due to the widespread implementation of surveillance cameras, glasses are being built which can defeat CCTV cameras.